January 19, 2022

Science

The world of science and technology

There are More Than Two Human Sexes

There are More Than Two Human Sexes

In high school biology, we learn that humans are born with either XX or XY chromosomes, and that a person’s internal and external sex organs match those chromosomes. It turns out, however, that sex isn’t that straightforward.

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Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5479330/
http://www.isna.org/faq/what_is_intersex
https://www.hrw.org/report/2017/07/25/i-want-be-nature-made-me/medically-unnecessary-surgeries-intersex-children-us
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-spectrum-of-sex-development-eric-vilain-and-the-intersex-controversy/
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/SRY#conditions
https://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html
https://www.wired.com/story/trumps-plan-to-redefine-gender-makes-no-scientific-sense/
https://www.nature.com/news/sex-redefined-1.16943

How Common is Intersex? An Explanation of the Stats.


http://www.isna.org/faq/ten_myths/rare
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03392.x
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16324-disorders-of-sex-differentiation
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1521690X07001054
https://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/dsd.htm
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/sa-visual/visualizing-sex-as-a-spectrum/
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2018/11/16/evolution-human-body-skeleton-sex-gender/#.XVYRf5NKjBI
https://massivesci.com/articles/sex-gender-intersex-transgender-identity-discrimination-title-ix/
https://childrensnational.org/visit/conditions-and-treatments/diabetes-hormonal-disorders/differences-in-sex-development
https://www.nationwidechildrens.org/specialties/thrive-program/differences-of-sex-development
http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/102/10/3465?sso-checked=true

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)


https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/disorders-sex-development/

FAQs

Differences of Sexual Development (DSD) Clinic


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682373/
https://www.seattlechildrens.org/clinics/differences-sex-development/
https://www.fairview.org/patient-education/40119
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355205
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29606626
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045263

Image Sources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:45,X.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PBB_Protein_SRY_image.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pseudoautosomal_region.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Androgen_receptor_3-d_model.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NHGRI_human_male_karyotype.png